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Some knowledge is an individual obligation and some is a communal obligation; is seeking knowledge obligatory for one who is capable of attaining it?

 

Praise be to Allah

Some Islamic
knowledge is an individual obligation (fard ‘ayn), and some of it is a
communal obligation (fard kifaayah), and some of it is nafl
(supererogatory).

With regard to
beneficial worldly knowledge, it is a communal obligation or is permissible.

It says in
Kashshaaf al-Qinaa‘
(1/411): The best of voluntary deeds is jihad. Ahmad
said: I do not know of anything after the obligatory duties that is better
than jihad…

Then comes
knowledge, learning and teaching it, in the fields of hadith, fiqh and other
fields, such as tafseer and usool, because of the hadith: “The superiority
of the scholar over the worshipper is like my superiority over the least of
you…” And Abu’d-Dardaa’ said: The scholar and the learner are equal in
reward, and the rest of people are riffraff in whom there is nothing good.

Muhanna narrated
that Imam Ahmad said: Seeking knowledge is the best of deeds for the one
whose intention is sound. It was said: How can one have the right intention?
He said: He should intend to be humble (after acquiring knowledge) and to
eliminate ignorance thereby.

Ibn Haani’ asked
him: Should he seek hadith as much as he thinks he has benefited thereby
(and then stop at that point)? He said: Nothing is as good as seeking
knowledge.

Ibn Mansoor
narrated that spending part of the night in discussing issues of knowledge
was dearer to Ahmad than spending some part of it in prayer, and that is
discussing the type of knowledge that benefits people in their religious
affairs. I said: (Do you mean) prayer, fasting, Hajj, divorce and so on? He
said: Yes.

Ahmad said:
Everyone should seek of knowledge as much as he needs to carry out his
religious duties. It was said to him: Do you mean that all types of shar‘i
knowledge are required to help a person adhere to the teachings of his
religion? He said: Whatever is required of him as an individual, he must
seek the knowledge thereof.

It was said:
Such as what? He said: Such as that which he cannot afford to be ignorant
of, namely his prayer, his fasting and so on.

What Ahmad meant
was the religious duties that are obligatory upon every individual; if that
is not the case, then (knowledge of those matters) is a communal obligation.
This was mentioned by our companions. So if any group of people acquire
knowledge which it is not an obligation for every individual to acquire,
then they have fulfilled a communal obligation, and whoever acquires this
(communal) knowledge, then it is something extra in his case (and that is a
good thing).

In Aadaab
‘Uyoon al-Masaa’il
it says: Knowledge is the best of deeds, and the
closest of the scholars to Allah are those who fear Him the most. End quote.

In al-Mawsoo‘ah
al-Fiqhiyyah
(13/6) it says: Acquiring knowledge may be subject to the
following rulings (as to whether it is obligatory):

·       

Learning may be an individual obligation (fard ‘ayn); this
refers to learning that which a Muslim cannot do without knowing in order to
carry out his religious duties, and to make his deeds sincerely for Allah
alone, may He be exalted, and how to interact with other people. It is
enjoined upon every accountable person, male or female – after learning what
is needed in order to have proper understanding of the tenets of faith,
which form the foundation of the religion – to learn about that which will
help him to do acts of worship and to interact with others in the correct
manner; that includes wudoo’, ghusl, prayer, fasting, rulings on Zakaah and
Hajj, for those for whom these things are obligatory, and having a sincere
intention for the sake of Allah when doing acts of worship.

It is obligatory
to learn the rulings on buying and selling for businessmen, so that they can
avoid dubious transactions and transactions involving improper elements in
all their dealings. The same applies to people in all professions, and
everyone who is involved in a thing must learn the rulings connected to it,
so that he can avoid falling into haraam when engaging in his profession.

·       

However, learning may be a communal obligation (fard
kifaayah); this applies to learning any branch of knowledge that is
essential for people’s well-being in worldly terms, such as medicine,
mathematics, grammar, language, ‘ilm al-kalaam, modes of recitation, the
science of hadith, and so on.

·       

Some types of knowledge are encouraged, such as extensive
study and research in fiqh, and finding out about subtle fiqhi issues; the
same applies to other branches of shar‘i knowledge.

·       

Some types of knowledge may be haraam, such as learning about
charlatanry, geomancy, witchcraft, soothsaying and fortune telling.

·       

Some types of knowledge may be makrooh (disliked), which
includes verses of poetry which contain descriptions of specific women.

·       

Some types of knowledge may be permissible, which includes
verses of poetry in which there is nothing objectionable such as ridiculing
a Muslim or mentioning faults of Muslims and so on. End quote.

That which comes
under the heading of a communal obligation or supererogatory knowledge does
not become an individual obligation for someone just because he has some
free time or has the ability to become a scholar.

But such a
person may be missing out on much goodness if he decides not to seek
knowledge or limits himself to learning only that which it is obligatory for
him to learn. That is because seeking knowledge is one of the noblest of
deeds, and the one who does that is one of the heirs of the Prophets,
because he is showing people the way to Allah and teaching people about His
religion.

With regard to
the honour of knowledge, it is sufficient to note that the Prophet
(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever
travels a road seeking knowledge thereby, Allah will cause him to travel one
of the roads of Paradise. The angels lower their wings in approval of the
seeker of knowledge. All those who are in the heavens and on earth, even the
fish in the water, pray for forgiveness for the scholar. The superiority of
the scholar over the worshipper is like the superiority of the moon over all
other heavenly bodies. The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets. The
Prophets did not leave behind dinars or dirhams, rather they left behind a
heritage of knowledge, and the one who acquires it acquires an abundant
portion.”
Narrated by at-Tirmidhi (2682), Abu Daawood (3641) and Ibn Maajah (223); the
hadith was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Tirmidhi.

There is nothing
wrong with a person working additional hours, without needing to, if that
will lead to him not acquiring further knowledge, so long as he has already
learned what he needs to know.

Secondly:

Whoever wants to
gain knowledge of fiqh has to study one of the madhhabs. This is the way of
people of knowledge both in the past and the present. It does not mean that
he should adhere fanatically to that madhhab and never accept any view from
outside that madhhab.

Shaykh Ibn
‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Undoubtedly the
individual should focus on a particular madhhab, studying it and its basic
principles and guidelines. But this does not mean that he should adhere
completely to the view of the imam of that madhhab as one should adhere to
the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him); rather
his study of fiqh should be based on that, but he should also be willing to
accept from other madhhabs that which is based on sound evidence, as was the
way of leading scholars who followed madhhabs, such as Shaykh al-Islam Ibn
Taymiyah, an-Nawawi, and others, so that his knowledge will be based on a
sound foundation.

End quote from
Majmoo‘ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (26/176-177).

[Shaykh Ibn
‘Uthaymeen] (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked: We see some students
beginning their study of fiqh with comparative fiqh; is this way correct? Or
does the study of fiqh require a gradual approach? Please explain that to
us.

He replied:

What does
comparative fiqh mean? It means giving different scholarly views on any
fiqhi issue. No, this is wrong.

The one who
starts his study of fiqh by reading books that show different views will
undoubtedly become lost and confused.

It is better to
focus on a particular madhhab and master its books. Once a student has a
solid grasp of the fiqh of that madhhab, then he may look at books of
comparative fiqh, and when he becomes well versed, he may be able to
determine which view is more correct.

As for starting
with differences of opinion when he is still a beginner, this is like
someone who throws himself into the sea when he does not know how to swim.

End quote from
Duroos li’sh-Shaykh al-‘Uthaymeen (11/29).

And Allah knows
best.